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(Revision: 10 July 2008)

Florida Poison Information Center
Tampa General Hospital
P.O. Box 1289
Tampa, Florida 33601 USA
EMERGENCY: Local - 813-253-4444
EMERGENCY: Florida Statewide - 1-800-222-1222
Administration Office: 813-844-7044
FAX: 813-844-4443

Florida Poison Information Center/Jacksonville
For Poisoning Emergencies in Florida
EMERGENCY: 1-800-222-1222 Voice or TTY
Administrative Office: 904-244-4465 (Non-emergency)

Florida Poison Information Center/Miami
For Poisoning Emergencies in Florida
EMERGENCY: 1-800-222-1222 Voice or TTY
Administrative Office: 305-585-5250 (Non-emergency)

Medical News & Information ...

Researchers find drugs being tested for Alzheimer's disease work in unexpected and beneficial ways [NEW] - June 11, 2008

"JACKSONVILLE, Fla. – Researchers at Mayo Clinic, with their national and international collaborators, have discovered how a class of agents now in testing to treat Alzheimer's disease work, and say they may open up an avenue of drug discovery for this disease and others." (more ...)

Different mutations in a single gene suggests Parkinson's disease is primarily an inherited genetic disorder [NEW] - April 16, 2008

"JACKSONVILLE, Fla. – Two new international studies by researchers at the Mayo Clinic site in Florida are rounding out the notion that Parkinson's disease is largely caused by inherited genetic mutations that pass through scores of related generations over hundreds, if not thousands of years. These genetic influences, which can be small but additive, or large and causative, overturn common beliefs that the neurodegenerative disease mostly occurs in a random fashion or is due to undetermined environmental factors." (more ...)

Seeing Alzheimer's Amyloids With Electron Microscopy For First Time [NEW]
     ScienceDaily - May 13, 2008

"In an important step toward demystifying the role protein clumps play in the development of neurodegenerative disease, researchers have created a stunning three-dimensional picture of an Alzheimer's peptide aggregate using electron microscopy. The study, in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reports that researchers from Brandeis University in Waltham, Mass., and the Leibniz Institut in Jena, Germany, have shown--for the first time--how A-beta peptide, found in the brains of Alzheimer's patients, forms a spaghetti-like protein mass called an amyloid fibril." (more ...)

FAA bans anti-smoking drug Chantix for Pilots, Air Controllers [NEW]
     By Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar
     Los Angeles Times - May 21, 2008

"WASHINGTON -- The Federal Aviation Administration today banned pilots and air traffic controllers from using a popular new anti-smoking drug after a medical safety group warned that the medication had apparently contributed to auto accidents and other mishaps that posed risks to both users and others." (more ...)

Treating Invasive Fungal Infections [NEW]

Clopidogrel: Some Drugs May Reduce Its Effectiveness [NEW]
     By John R. Horn, PharmD, FCCP, and Philip D. Hansten, PharmD
     Pharmacy Times - April 2008

"By careful monitoring of patients who are prescribed clopidogrel, drugs likely to reduce its effectiveness can be avoided."

"In October 2003, this column discussed the potential interaction between clopidogrel (Plavix) and atorvastatin. At that time, it was concluded that this interaction was unlikely to cause a risk to patients. Multiple studies in the past few years have confirmed that view."

"Clopidogrel represents a rather unique risk for drug interactions, however. It is a prodrug that requires metabolic conversion to a thiol metabolite that binds to the platelet adenosine diphosphate receptor and reduces the ability of platelets to aggregate. The antiplatelet effect is useful to prevent blood clots in the arterial system and in patients with coronary artery stents." (more ...)

The Facts About Blood Pressure [NEW]
     By Antony Q. Pham, PharmD, and David Q. Pham, PharmD, BCPS
     Pharmacy Times - March 2008

"High blood pressure (also known as hypertension) affects about 50 million Americans and almost 1 billion people worldwide. People who have normal blood pressure at 55 years of age have a 90% risk of developing high blood pressure in their lifetime. Therefore, it is likely that high blood pressure will affect you or someone closely related to you." (more ...)

Warnings, Not Ban, Urged for Diabetes Drug [NEW]
     By Rick Weiss
     Wahington Post - Tuesday, July 31, 2007 - Page A06

"A pair of Food and Drug Administration advisory panels called yesterday for new warnings for the widely used diabetes drug Avandia because of evidence that it significantly raises the risk of heart attack, but they stopped short of recommending that the drug be pulled from the market, as some FDA officials had urged." (more ...)

Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing [NEW]
     By Michael T. Gaslin, Cory Rubin, Edmund A. Pribitkin
     Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - April 2008

"Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products." (more ...)

Florida Prescription Drug Prices
     State of Florida - Office of the Attorney General

"The Florida Prescription Drug Price website provides pricing information for the 100 most commonly used prescription drugs in Florida. The prices are the “usual and customary prices,” also known as retail prices, reported monthly by pharmacies. This is the price that an uninsured consumer, with no discount or supplemental plan, would normally pay. Prices at your local pharmacy may change daily, so this website is only meant to help you compare prices at different pharmacies and are not a guaranteed price."

Health Services Research Information Central
     National Library of Medicine

Web sites by other categories including: Health Economics, Rural Health, and State Resources - Federal Agencies | Associations | Data Sets and Data Sources | Epidemiology and Health Statistics | Evidence Based Medicine and Health Technology Assessment | Funding | Health Policy and Health Economics | Informatics | Public Health | Rural Health | State Resources | Disparities

Alphabetic List - All Web sites in alphabetic order.

Visual loss with erectile dysfunction medications
     Canadian Medical Association Journal
     Early release, published July 26, 2006. Subject to revision
     CMAJ- August 15, 2006 issue.

"Health Canada recently issued a warning that the conditon known as nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) has been reported in users of all the PDE5 inhibitors."

"Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, including sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra), are drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction that have long been recognized to cause temporary, minor visual changes in less than 10% of users. However concerns were raised in 2005 after a small case series was published describing several sildenafil users who experenced sudden, severe visual loss." (more ...)

National Institutes of Health - Medline Plus
The National Institues of Health has a free, informative publication available online. This PDF file (32 pages) can be found at:
NIH Medline Plus Magazine

Pharmacy Times -
April Issue -

The Pharmacy Times April 2006 issue is an Asthma and Allergy Issue.
* A Pharmacist's Guide to OTC Therapy: Allergic Rhinitis - (p 12)
* Asthma Symptoms Are Highly Controllable - (p 24)
* t-PA Is a Lifesaver for Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke - (p 56)
* Infection Control: Focus on Prevention - (p 58)
* What's New in Pain Management - (p 60)
* Outlook Obesity - (p 72)
* Diabetes Watch - Rigorous Therapy Eases Diabetes Neuropathy - (page 74)
* Asthma Watch - (p 77)
* Avoiding Allergic-Reaction Triggers - (p 90)
* Coping with Alzheimer's Disease - (p 94)
* Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: Treatment Is Available - (p 100)
* Drug Interactions - SAIDs and Antihypertensive Agents - (p 111)
* CE Education - The ABCs of Asthma Management

These are just a few of the articles found in this issue.


CURE is a quarterly publication for cancer patients, survivors, and caregivers by CURE Media Group, LP. and combines science and humanity. It features cancer updates, research and education.

Subscriptions are free to cancer patients, survivors, and caregivers. All others: Individuals - USA $20. (See Web site for other types of subscriptions.)

Herceptin in the Spotlight
     By Monica Zangwill, MD.
     CURE - Spring 2008, Vol. 5 - No. 1 - p18.

Eight years after its approval, Herceptin emerges as the best weapon against HER2-positive breast cancer.

The History of Herceptin
Back in the 1970s, scientists noticed that certain genes in animal tumors were involved in turning normal cells into cancer cells. Looking at similar genes in humans, doctors made some interesting discoveries. They found that one gene, called the HER2 gene, (HER stands for human epidermal growth factor receptor) that is present in normal breast cells was overly abundant in some malignant cells.

With more investigation, doctors learned that the HER2 gene can create a protein receptor that sits on the outside of cells. This HER2 receptor helps trigger the chain reactions that cause the cell to abnormally divide and grow. George Sledge, MD, an oncologist and researcher at Indiana University, says, "HER2 is involved in pretty much everything you would be interested in for cancer, including growth, invasion and metastases.” Further research on those malignant cells with extra copies of the HER2 gene revealed that not only did they have more copies of the HER2 gene, but whereas a typical breast cell has about 50,000 HER2 receptors on its surface, a breast cancer cell can have as many as 1.5 million receptors. (more ...)

Picking Up Momentum for Treating Renal Cell Carcinoma
     By Beverly A. Caley
     CURE - Spring 2008, Vol. 5 - No. 1 - p34.

At the end of [name deleted] annual physical in March 2002, everything seemed fine. While he was dressing, his doctor impulsively told him to get back on the table, examined his abdomen, and found that he had an enlarged spleen. Further testing revealed a tumor in his kidney that was wrapped around his pancreas, spleen and liver.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is found in the lining of the very small tubes in the kidney that filter and clean blood, remove waste products and produce urine. These cancers make up over 90 percent of all kidney cancers. RCC itself has several subtypes (see sidebar). The most common is clear-cell RCC, which accounts for around 80 percent of all RCC cases. (more ...)

Lost and Found - From mastectomy to reconstruction and beyond.
     By Jodi Leas
     CURE - Spring 2008, Vol. 5 - No. 1 - p72.

It rained the day of my mastectomy, a harsh downpour that fell from what appeared to be a huge dark hole spreading across the sky. I was glad the rain started early that morning because when I walked into the crowded hospital lobby, I was able to pretend the wet streaks rolling down my face were raindrops instead of tears.

I had cried only once before-in the surgeon’s office-a week before the operation when it all became too real. The surgeon talked in sentences but all I heard were nouns-breast cancer, mastectomy, cure. At age 41, I had accepted the fact that the complete removal of my left breast was medically necessary in order to save my life, but I couldn’t quite get over the fact that a part of me was going away for good. (more ...)

New Drug Update 2005-Part 1
     Drug Topics - February 6, 2006 issue (page 21)
     CE Education

Twenty new molecular entities were approved in 2005.
Part 1 - Reviews 10 of the NMEs.
Part 2 will cover the rest. (next issue).

New Drug Update 2005-Part 2
     Drug Topics - February 20, 2006 issue
     CE Education

     Drug Topics - February 6, 2006 issue (page 6)

FDA unveils new Rx drug information format
The FDA has unveiled a major revision to its prescription drug information format, commonly called the package insert. (more...)

Labeling changes made for Clozaril
Novartis has made several modifications to the labeling of Clozaril (clozapine), including changes to the white blood cell (WBC) monitoring schedule. (more...)

Liver Toxicity reported with telithromycin use
The FDA has issued a public health advisory following reports of three patients who experienced serious liver toxicity after administration of telithromycin (Ketek, Sanofi-Aventis), published in a recent issue of Annals of Internal Medicine. (more...)

New labeling and guide for topical calcineurin inhibitors
A new boxed warning states that rare cases of malignancies have been reported in patients treated with tacrolimus (Protopic, Astellas Pharma) and pimecrolimus (Elidel, Novartis). The FDA approved the new labeling for the eczema treatments following reports of skin cancer and lymphoma. (more...)

Latebreakers - Archives

Get free mobile Part D formulary info
     By Carol Ukens - Technology Update
     Drug Topics - February 6, 2006 issue (page 48)

Pharmacists and physicians now have free access to Medicare Part D Rx plan formularies via their mobile devices or the Web, courtesy of Epocrates Inc. The information also includes Rx plan co-pay tiers, generic drug options, and coverage restrictions. Go to the Web site found at: and click on the Resource Center. If you're not a member, you'll have to register, but it's free.

FTC Closes Down "FREE Rx MEDICINE" Internet Scam
     Pharmacy Times - NewsCapsules - January 2006 (page 9)

Federal Trade Commission (FTC) investigators have slammed the door on a Louisville, Ky-based company that lured lowincome consumers with no insurance into spending $199 with false claims that they would receive "free prescription medication."

In a complaint alleging fraudulent activity by, the FTC charged that the company targets "low-income consumers who spend more than $100 a month for medications" and may "qualify to receive free prescription medicine through one or more of the many patient assistance programs (PAPs) operated by pharmaceutical companies." The company's television and radio ads urge consumers who are not covered by insurance to call a toll-free number to find out if they are "eligible" to receive free prescription medications.

Consumers who responded to the ads were charged $199.95 for a 6-month enrollment and were provided with PAP application forms that must be submitted to the pharmaceutical companies. According to the FTC, many who paid this fee later learned that they were not eligible to receive their prescription medications for free from a PAP, or that their prescriptions were not available from a PAP. (more...)

Dealing with the Drug Interaction Skeptic
     By John R. Horn, PharmD, FCCP, and Philip Hansten, PharmD
     Pharmacy Times - November 2005 (page 20)

For Dr. Hansten, it was not his best moment as a pharmacist. It was the late 1960s, and he had just started his first job as a staff pharmacist/ drug information specialist at a hospital in Berkeley, Calif. The drug order that came down in the pneumatic tube said, "Tetracycline 250 mg po every 6 hours. Give 2 oz Maalox with each dose of tetracycline." Not many drug interactions were well-documented in the 1960s, but this was certainly one of them. The young pharmacist called the physician on the phone and explained in his most tactful manner that the antacid would reduce the bioavailability of the tetracycline to nearly zero. The physician was an older man, and his response was something like, "Well sonny, I've been giving tetracycline together with antacids for quite a while now, and I have not seen any problems. So, just fill the orders exactly the way I wrote them." The physician slammed the phone down before the pharmacist could respond, and that was that. (more...)

Why You Should Stop Smoking
     By Max Sherman, BSPharm -- Pharmacy Times - July 2005

In the first half of the 20th century, many people were not aware of the hazards of smoking. By 1950, however, there was strong evidence that smoking was a cause of lung cancer. In 1964, the Surgeon General of the United States issued a report about the negative health effects of tobacco use (Table 1). Yet, despite of all the information gathered since then, smoking still remains the leading preventable cause of death in this country. (Obesity is second.) (more...)

Common Pediatric Respiratory Illnesses
     U.S. Pharmacist -- Vol. No: 30:07:HS-2-HS-8 - Posted: 15 July 2005

Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.1 These illnesses, which include bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia, are caused by pathogens such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus, and influenza virus, and account for a large portion of medically attended illnesses and hospitalizations of children younger than 5 years old.

ARIs involve the upper and/or lower respiratory tract and have an abrupt onset that can last from a few hours to a few days. Upper respiratory tract infections affect the ears, nose, throat, and sinuses, while lower respiratory tract infections affect the trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs.2 The most common diagnoses for children with ARIs are fever, rule-out sepsis, or febrile seizure (39%), pneumonia (17%), asthma (17%), and bronchiolitis (16%). (more...)

Tips for Traveling Seniors
     U.S. Pharmacist -- Vol. No: 30:07:32-36 - Posted: 15 July 2005

A large and increasing number of individuals are traveling both domestically and internationally for professional, social, recreational, and humanitarian reasons. Travelers are exposed to health risks in unfamiliar environments, and elderly individuals are among the most widely traveled members of society. While advanced age is not necessarily a contraindication for travel if a senior is in good health, several precautions may minimize or prevent the risks and negative consequences associated with traveling. The elderly should seek medical advice before embarking on a long-distance trip. An appointment with a travel medicine physician can be a valuable resource, especially for international travel. (more...)

New Approaches to Classifying Pain
     Pharmacy Today -- April 2005 - Vol. 11, No. 4

Pain can be classified by duration and onset (acute or chronic and intermittent or persistent), etiology (nociceptive, neuropathic, or functional), pathology (malignant or nonmalignant), and severity (mild, moderate, or severe), and all of these systems help determine the likelihood of complicating psychosocial issues and help guide treatment selection. Many patients’ pain is classified in multiple ways. For example, postherpetic neuralgia would likely be classified as chronic persistent neuropathic pain of nonmalignant origin. What does this classification tell us? This quadruple classification by temporality, pathology, and etiology can help guide treatment. (more...) Note: PDF file.

NIH - National Diabetes Education Program

Working Together to Manage Diabetes. (more....)

Diarrhea: Sweeping Changes in the OTC Market
     U.S. Pharmacist - Vol. No: 30:01 - 2005;1:17-22.

     Only bismuth subsalicylate and loperamide have been proven
     save and effective for diarrhea.

Diarrhea is one of the more dangerous problems for which patients seek self-care advice from the pharmacist. This is because of the potentially devastating effects of dehydration coupled with severe fluid and electrolyte loss. The FDA has published several recent documents on antidiarrheals and oral rehydration solutions. (more....)

Implications of Dysphagia in the Elderly
     U.S. Pharmacist - Vol. No: 30:01 - 2005;1:30-39.

Concepts to Consider
Age-related changes in intestinal innervation may contribute to gastrointestinal disorders that are seen with increased incidence in the elderly. These include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and constipation. Immobility, comorbidity, and medication side effects also contribute to these conditions. Dysphagia, the most common esophageal disorder in the elderly, may be described as the subjective awareness of difficulty in swallowing, caused by impaired progression of matter from the pharynx to the stomach. (more....)

Colonoscopy:Spotting Abnormal Growths
     U.S. Pharmacist

Colonoscopy is an important procedure developed in the mid-1960s to allow doctors to look inside the large intestine for polyps or other growths or abnormalities without the need to perform surgery. It has been improved significantly over the last 30 years and now can be done in a doctor’s office or outpatient clinic without a hospital stay.. (more....)

Calcium Supplements: Benefits and Risks
     U.S. Pharmacist - Vol. No: 29:12 - 2004;12:16-26.

Virtually all people should take steps to prevent the development of osteoporosis. It is the most frequently occurring bone disease in the United States, affecting 55% of those ages 50 and older. The morbidity it causes is devastating for elderly patients. The U.S. will experience an epidemic of osteoporosis in coming decades as baby boomers reach the ages of highest risk.

The Epidemiology of Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is usually thought of as a disease of elderly females. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) estimates that eight million American women have been diagnosed with osteoporosis; however, the NOF also estimates that two million men have the condition. Women are at greater risk because they have a lower peak bone mass due to smaller stature and also because they experience a rapid postmenopausal bone loss. (more....)

Preventing Medication Errors that Occur in the Home
     U.S. Pharmacist - Vol. No: 29:09

The majority of medication safety research and published health care literature has focused on hospital or ambulatory settings where patient care is provided at a site away from the home. But many medication errors occur in the home, and these errors need to be analyzed to help develop the strategies that will improve safe medication use throughout the continuum of health care. (more....)

Douching: Perceived Benefits but Real Hazards
     U.S. Pharmacist - Vol. No: 29:09

The risks and benefits of vaginal douching have seldom been clearly explained to the American female. As a result, many women rely on folk wisdom or their mother's advice for douching. Although there are perceived benefits to douching, there is growing evidence that any potential health benefit may be outweighed by risks to the patient.
Adverse Effects of Douching
Vaginal Infection: For women of childbearing age, bacterial vaginosis is the primary etiology of vaginal infection. In bacterial vaginosis, normal vaginal microflora is disrupted, facilitating overgrowth of anaerobes such as Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella species, or Mycoplasma hominis. Fully 50% of patients are asymptomatic, although others notice a thin, white, homogeneous discharge that has a "fishy" odor. Douching is a risk factor for bacterial vaginosis. (more....)

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Major Entrapment Neuropathy in the Elderly
     U.S. Pharmacist - Vol. No: 29:09

The wrist, comprising a delicate network of bones, nerves, tendons, and ligaments, allows us to perform many hand movements often taken for granted. Routine tasks such as writing, tying shoes, opening a jar, and waving are all possible because of the wrist's support and control of the hand.1 Injury to the wrist may be acute, such as a sprain or fracture, or may be due to overuse caused by activities involving repetitive motion.
A feature of a variety of conditions, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is caused by compression of the median nerve in the narrow tunnel formed by the small bones of the hand, multiple longitudinal flexor tendons, and the transverse carpal ligament. Repeated use of the hands may cause inflammation of these tendons and may lead to swelling in the wrist and subsequent pressure on the nerve. Nerve entrapment syndromes result from focal injury to a perip heral nerve and are more common in the upper extremities. The most common entrapment neuropathy is CTS, which affects the wrist. (more....)

Natural Aging Defenses - June 7, 2004

(Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Human growth hormone is a natural substance in the body that decreases substantially as people age. With lower levels, you often see fatigue, sagging skin, decreased memory, decreased muscle mass, and other changes typically associated with aging. Two doctors now offer tips on how to boost the quality and quantity of your life.

Today, the average life expectancy is pushing 80 years. With more years to live, people are exploring ways to add more life to their years. Karlis Ullis, M.D., medical director at Sports Medicine and Anti-Aging Medical Group in Santa Monica, Calif., says raising your human growth hormone levels could help. "When you put somebody on a growth hormone that's really deficient, their heart will work better, their muscles will work better, their memory will work better, their sleep will be better, and their mood will be better." (more....)

Got Vitamin D? - June 7, 2004

Got Vitamin D? -- Full-Length Doctor's Interview In this full-length doctor's interview, Kerry Burnstein, Ph.D., explains the risks of vitamin D deficiency. (more....)

FDA Works to Reduce Preventable Medical Device Injuries
     By Carol Rados - FDA Consumer Magazine - 2003

"Medical devices help to alleviate pain, overcome disability, and sustain life. They also, on occasion, fail to operate properly or are misused in ways that are associated with injuries and deaths. Betty Davis' wheelchair, for example, caught fire, badly burning over 25 percent of her body in January 1999. A quadriplegic confined to a wheelchair since 1976, the 65-year-old Tucson, Ariz., resident knows the importance of a well-maintained machine that works as intended. "I'm a very active quad," she says, but when the fire started, "all I could do was sit there and watch my arms and legs burn." Faulty wiring short-circuited the battery charger in Davis' wheelchair. Davis says she put the chair on charge after a blinking light indicated the battery was running low. But Davis detected a spark, and immediately disconnected the charger. The spark, however, turned into a flame. Though authorities don't know why, Davis' attempt to reach 911 through her emergency medical pendant failed. Fortunately, a neighbor was nearby at the time and threw water on her to extinguish the fire." (more....)

Alzheimer's: Searching for a Cure
     By Linda Bren - FDA Consumer Magazine - 2003

"It was 1997 when an alarm went off in Vivian Freed's head. She knew something was wrong with her 85-year old mother, who had always planned her trip to celebrate Thanksgiving with her children down to the last detail. But that year, she got the airline tickets for the wrong days. Freed also found out that her mother had been missing doctors' appointments and social engagements, so she flew from her home in Rockville, Md., to her mother's home in Florida to check on her.

'Everything that she had done perfectly before was a mess,' says Freed. The bills weren't paid, and the medications that her mother had been giving to her ailing father weren't right. 'We realized we needed to do something,' says Freed, after a doctor diagnosed her mother with Alzheimer's disease." (more....)

Isotretinoin - Accutane
     FDA - August 2005
     FDA Alert on Accutane - Tougher Rules for Acne Drug - Accutane

The Power of Accutane: The Benefits and Risks of a Breakthrough Acne Drug
     By Michelle Meadows - FDA Consumer Magazine - 2001

"Acne plagued Julie Harper throughout high school and college. She depended on makeup and wore her hair down over the side of her face. She gave up chocolate and french fries, only to find that neither made a difference. And she went through medicine after medicine, from over-the-counter creams to oral antibiotics.
Warning about Pregnancy Risks
When FDA approved Accutane, the drug was known to be teratogenic--able to cause birth defects. It was designated as Category X, meaning that it must be avoided under all circumstances during pregnancy. Nursing mothers also should not use Accutane." (more....)

Why Acne Forms, and How Accutane Knocks It Out
"Acne is the most common skin disorder, and while it usually appears in adolescence, adults can get it too. Acne occurs when hair follicles and the sebaceous glands inside the follicles are inflamed. Sebaceous glands make an oily substance called sebum. Too much sebum can clog the follicles and lead to bacterial growth and inflammation." (more....)

From Bacteria to Parasites: Understanding Infection
     Mayo Clinic

"Substances that invade your body live everywhere - in the air, on food and plants, on and in animals, in the soil and water, and on just about every other surface. They range in size from microscopic single-cell organisms to parasitic worms that can grow to several feet in length. Hardly any of these organisms produce disease because they're kept under control by your immune system. But if this system is weakened or you encounter an organism that you haven't built resistance to, illness may result." (more....)

Swimming Pool Chlorine Linked to Asthma
     Ivanhoe's Medical Breakthroughs - 3 June 2003

"BRUSSELS, Belgium (Ivanhoe Newswire) -- A new study demonstrates an association between chlorine used to disinfect indoor swimming pools and the surge of childhood asthma in developed countries.

Researchers say trichloramine -- or nitrogen trichloride, a highly concentrated volatile by-product of chlorination -- seems to be the culprit. It is readily generated and inhaled during contact between chlorine and organic matter such as urine and sweat." (more....)

Brain Temperature Tunnel Discovered
     By Stacie Overton - Ivanhoe Health Correspondent
     Ivanhoe's Medical Breakthroughs - 2 June 2003

"NEW HAVEN, Conn. (Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Yale physician and scientist M. Marc Abreu, M.D., says he has uncovered an area of the brain called the brain temperature tunnel. In what he calls a remarkable discovery, he says this precise area of the brain controls the key function and critical factor for life preservation and human performance -- brain temperature." (more....)

Wound Care Product Selection
     By Robert G. Smith, D.P.M., R.Ph. C.Ped.
     As published in U.S. Pharmacist - April 2003

"Patients manage most cases of wound care themselves, and the pharmacist may well be the only professional called upon for professional advice. The selection of a wound care product involves many factors, such as effectiveness, cosmetic appearance, patient acceptability, and cost. This article will help the pharmacist understand the factors involved in selecting a particular product based on wound type. A section on burn care is also included.

The Healing Process
Human skin has two distinct fused layers (see FIGURE 1), each with different tissue cell types that have distinct functions. The epidermis is the avascular, outermost layer of the skin and consists of five cell types, also arranged in layers. The dermis, composed of collagen, elastic fibers, and fibroblast, provides strength, support, blood, and oxygen. Thick bundles of collagen anchor the dermis to the subcutaneous tissue and the underlying support structures of fascia, muscle, and bone." (more....) [Excellent illustrations.]

Drug [Ibuprofen] 'Stops Aspirin Heart Benefit'
     BBC News - 14 February 2003

"Taking ibuprofen counteracts the benefits of taking aspirin to prevent heart disease, increasing the risk of fatal illness, researchers have found.

Researchers from the University of Dundee have found those taking both aspirin and ibuprofen have a 75% increased risk of dying from cardiovascular disease compared to those just taking aspirin.

They also had a doubling of risk of dying from any cause, the study published in the Lancet found."

[The article continues at...]

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Medications - Drugs - Pharmacy ...

  • Amoxicillin and Clavulanate - RxList Monographs.
  • Drug Alerts & Information - American College of Rheumatology.
  • Drug Formulary - Medical College of Wisconsin.
  • Drug Information - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research -
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - Information about the Products We Regulate.
    Consumer Drug Information - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (FDA). Each of the Consumer Drug Information Sheets posted on this site gives general information about newly approved prescription drugs. Only information about drugs approved since January 1998 appears on this page. Since these drugs are newly approved, they may not yet be on the market. For more information on drug availability, please check with your physician, pharmacist or other health care provider.

    Pharmacists from CDER's Drug Information Branch prepare these information sheets based on the drug’s approved package insert. The package insert is written for health care providers. It contains very detailed information about the drug. The manufacturer prepares this information and FDA approves it.

  • FDA - U. S. Food and Drug Administration.
  • Orange Book - From FDA - Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations.
  • PharmInfoNet - This site does not appear to be operational at this time which is unfortunate. If it does not return to active status soon, this link will be removed.) - Pharmaceutical Information Network Home Page. Access to: Drug Information Resources and Links, Medical Science Bulletin, Disease Centers, plus more - Extensive - Company that created this site is not associated with any pharmaceutical company.
  • PharmWeb - Pharmacy information.
  • RxList - The Internet Drug Index.

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Inclusion of a Web site, book title, or other items in this list, page, or site does not imply or mean endorsement of that site, book, or item by this site, site provider, or author. All sites, books, and any other items included are provided for educational purposes only. Information found on any of these sites, or other items, does not constitute medical or any other type of advice. ALL critical information should be independently verified.

PLEASE NOTE: If you need medical or any other type of assistance you should talk to your personal physician or seek the services of a competent professional.

Because these services are beyond our control, we are not responsible for their availability or content. We do strive, however, to select up-to-date educational, professional, and wholesome, family-oriented links and resources.

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